Metodología

Metodología

Las Naciones Unidas reconocen que la Organización Mundial del Turismo es la organización competente para reunir, analizar, publicar, uniformar y mejorar las estadísticas de turismo, y promover la integración de esas estadísticas en el ámbito del sistema de las Naciones Unidas

En 2008, la comunidad estadística internacional aprobó un doble marco de recomendaciones metodológicas para medir el turismo de forma normalizada.

Las Recomendaciones internacionales para estadísticas de turismo 2008 (también conocidas como RIET 2008) proporcionan un marco metodológico global para la obtención y compilación de estadísticas de turismo en todos los países, independientemente del nivel de desarrollo en que se encuentren sus sistemas estadísticos.

Las RIET 2008 aportan los principales conceptos, definiciones y clasificaciones para la medición del turismo de forma normalizada en los distintos países. La esencia de estos conceptos y definiciones está recogida en: Entender el turismo: Glosario básico (árabe), (inglés), (español), (francés) y (ruso). Una versión más amplia de este glosario está disponible: Glosario de términos turísticos.

Su público prioritario es el personal de las oficinas y de las administraciones nacionales de turismo que trabajan en la compilación de estadísticas de turismo. La publicación contiene también un caudal de información que puede ser de interés para los usuarios de datos que quieran entender mejor la naturaleza de los datos turísticos. Además, ofrece orientación general respecto a las fuentes de los datos y los métodos de compilación.

Rápido resumen del contenido:


Las RIET 2008 fueron aprobadas por la Comisión de Estadística de las Naciones Unidas en su 39º periodo de sesiones (26-29 de febrero de 2008). Actualizan y reemplazan a las anteriores Recomendaciones sobre Estadísticas de Turismo (RET 1993) adoptadas por la Comisión en 1993 y publicadas en 1994 (en el Anexo 1 de las RIET se muestran las principales diferencias entre las RET 1993 y las RIET 2008).


The International Recommendations for Tourism Statistics 2008 Compilation Guide (adopted by UN Statistical Commission in its 45th session, 4-7 March 2014) is a companion document to the International Recommendations for Tourism Statistics (IRTS 2008). The primary purpose of this Compilation Guide is to provide further clarifications and practical guidance for using sources and methods to compile statistics on tourism. It is designed to support the production of a high quality set of basic data and indicators in each country, and to strengthen the international comparability of tourism statistics.

The Compilation Guide discusses new data sources and the application of statistical methods to changing circumstances. Statistical methods evolve over time and the Compilation Guide does not present a prescriptive or definitive approach to compiling tourism statistics.

The Compilation Guide includes comments and explanations on the different concepts introduced and used in IRTS 2008, orientation on the issues behind these recommendations, guidance on how to compile the recommended variables and aggregates, and examples of how some countries have solved specific problems. Some of the solutions can be considered best practices; others, while geared to particular national circumstances, may nevertheless be interesting as illustrations of how countries can overcome obstacles encountered in the compilation process.

The Compilation Guide is structured similarly to the IRTS 2008 and provides extensive explanations and country examples of typical compilation issues, as follows:

In order to keep the Compilation Guide as accurate as possible and to facilitate its update as new best practices are identified and countries provide the latest information on different statistical issues, is being issued in two different formats:

  • As an e-document with hyperlinks to IRTS 2008, other documents, country case studies and complementary material, as deemed appropriate, which will be regularly updated to reflect new experiences considered useful for the statistics community. While the e document will be available in English only, the links will in some cases direct readers to case studies in other languages and in the United Nations official languages of the wherever possible.
  • As a document in PDF format for printing and translation into other languages (except for hyperlinks material case studies and other complementary material), so as to facilitate dissemination to other interested audiences, particularly users of tourism statistics.

The general guidelines proposed by UNWTO are intended to promote the configuration of national tourism statistical systems with a view to:
obtaining sets of data that are sufficiently accurate and based on sufficiently homogeneous principles to allow for more advanced international comparability;
enabling countries to identify their statistical gaps and providing guidance on how to fill them; and
improving the design and monitoring of tourism policies (especially in the area of marketing).


La cuenta satélite de turismo (CST) es un marco estadístico normalizado y el principal instrumento de medición económica del turismo. The Cuenta satélite de turismo: Recomendaciones sobre el marco conceptual 2008 (también conocido como CST: RMC 2008) proporciona el marco conceptual común, actualizado, para elaborar una CST. Adopta el sistema básico de conceptos, clasificaciones, definiciones, tablas y agregados del Sistema de Cuentas Nacionales 2008 (SCN 2008), la norma internacional para una sinopsis sistemática de la actividad económica nacional, desde una perspectiva funcional.

La CST permite así la armonización y la conciliación de las estadísticas de turismo desde una perspectiva económica (cuentas nacionales). Permite por ello generar datos económicos sobre turismo (como el PIB turístico directo), comparables con otras estadísticas económicas. La forma exacta en que la CST logra estos fines está relacionada con la lógica de la SCN de contrastar los datos obtenidos desde la perspectiva de la demanda (la adquisición de bienes y servicios por parte de los visitantes durante un viaje turístico) con datos obtenidos desde la perspectiva de la oferta (el valor de los bienes y servicios producidos por las industrias en respuesta al gasto de los visitantes).

La CST puede verse como un conjunto de 10 tablas-resúmenes, cada una con sus datos subyacentes:


La Comisión de Estadística de las Naciones Unidas tomó nota del documento CST: RMC 2008 en su 39º periodo de sesiones (26-29 de febrero de 2008). Actualiza y reemplaza al anterior CST: RMC 2000 aprobado por la Comisión de Estadística de las Naciones Unidas en su 31º periodo de sesiones (29 de febrero-3 de marzo de 2000);  para entender las principales diferencias entre las dos ediciones, véase el Anexo 1 de CST: RMF 2008

Los datos de CST permiten entender mejor el lugar del turismo en la economía y hacen posibles diversos tipos de análisis económico (see TSA: RMF 2008 – Annex 6). Por ejemplo, se hace posible aplicar las técnicas de modelización económica (como el análisis insumo-producto) a los datos de la CST para estimar los efectos indirectos e inducidos del turismo en una economía. 

In March of 2017, the UN Statistical Commission agreed with the UNWTO proposal to prepare a Compilation Guide for the Tourism Satellite Account under the supervision of the Committee on Statistics and TSA of the UNWTO. This guide should support countries in producing a TSA and to derive TSA indicators such as Tourism Direct GDP or employment related to tourism.

The Compilation Guide for the Tourism Satellite Account 2008 (CG-TSA) will be the companion to the international recommendations contained in Tourism Satellite Account: Recommended Methodological Framework 2008. It will be based on the Canadian Tourism Satellite Account Handbook (2007), the European Implementation Manual on TSA (2001), and the Eurostat TSA in the European Union, Volumes I, II and III (2009). In addition, the guide will make reference to the UN technical report on “a Systems Approach to National Accounts Compilation” (1999).

The Compilation Guide for the TSA would be structured as follows:

Expert Group on Compilation Guide for Tourism Satellite Account

The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), with the support of the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD), are setting up an Expert Group on Tourism Satellite Account to lead the development of the Compilation Guide.

The group will collect and review existing supporting materials, collect country practices and draft text for the Guide.

The first meeting of the Expert Group on Compilation Guide for Tourism Satellite Account was hold in UNWTO Headquarters, Madrid (Spain) on 25 February 2019.

A System of Tourism Statistics (STS) should be understood, as that part of the National Statistical System (NSS) providing reliable, consistent and appropriate statistical information on the socio-economic aspects related to tourism, integrated within all the economic and social statistics related to other fields, at different territorial levels (national –or federal, where appropriate-, infra-national and international).

The design of a national STS should be viewed as the basic coordination and integration framework of the statistical information produced by all tourism stakeholders. Concepts, definitions, classifications, data, indicators, aggregates and table of results relating to tourism, designed so as to provide an exhaustive description of the tourism phenomenon in all its aspects (physical, social, economic, etc.) and a measurement of its economic contribution within a context of international comparability are a structural part of the NSS.

The new International Recommendations for Tourism Statistics 2008 (IRTS 2008) and Tourism Satellite Account: Recommended Methodological Framework 2008 (TSA:RMF 2008) constitute the updated reference framework for the STS. As a consequence, they should be used as a reference for harmonization, coordination and integration of available tourism statistical information, although this information might extend in the coming years beyond the still restricted domain these recommendations touch upon: for instance, by extending the concept of consumption to include other components of demand (such as collective consumption and gross fixed capital formation), by developing the sub-national perspective, by developing the link with other statistical system such as that on environmental issues, etc.

Strengthening national STSs

The design of the STS should be viewed as the basic coordination framework of all the information produced by all stakeholders in tourism. Concepts, definitions, classifications, indicators and accounting aggregates relating to tourism, designed so as to secure an exhaustive description of the tourism phenomenon in all its aspects (physical, social, economic, etc.) and a measurement of its economic contribution within a context of international comparability are a structural part of the system.

Although it is the countries' responsibility to carry out the development of the STS, the UNWTO recommends this should follow the Basic Principles of Official Statistics approved by the United Nations Statistical Commission (11/15 April 1994).

Those principles provide guidelines for establishing and maintaining a credible STS and therefore, the use of such principles should be understood as a necessary condition to maintain users' confidence in tourism statistics and, particularly, to help guaranteeing the integrity, transparency and confidentiality of the individual data and the public access to the available statistics.

UNWTO has developed specific initiatives to promote greater credibility and comparability of tourism statistics in areas where it could have a comparative advantage: these consist exclusively of two demand-side variables (arrivals/departures by non-residents and expenditure associated to inbound tourism), on which general guidelines have been drawn up in order to provide the statistical instruments considered ideal for the great majority of countries (this is the case of our proposed model border surveys).

Also, albeit with much lower ambitions, minimal guidelines have been drawn up for those countries that due to various types of reasons (undoubtedly, limited availability of budgetary resources is the most common) consider the use of tourism modules in surveys in which it is possible to do so (basically, these are household surveys for the purpose of research on household budgets).

Lastly, and specifically regarding the usefulness of administrative and tax records, a comparative study has been carried out in various OECD countries which highlights the importance of statistics based on this type of records for the purpose the structural analysis of the tourism industries and for monitoring the situation of tourism activity on the demand side.

Aside from these contributions, others have also attracted the attention of the UNWTO Statistics Department and have been published as special issues in the “Enzo Paci Papers on Measuring the Economic Significance of Tourism”.

Volume 3 includes four contributions on the topic “Using Household Surveys for Measuring Domestic Tourism”:

The topic “Revision of series in tourism statistics” was dealt with in volume 4, including the following contributions:

Good practices 

Over the course of several years, UNWTO has issued a number of contributions aiming at the strengthening of national STSs, notably:

These contain references to experiences that were considered to be especially pertinent to the topics at hand, though in no case was there any intention to carry out an exhaustive compilation of best practice examples. Therefore the examples given should be understood as merely illustrative of the development of national STSs, which are believed could be of interest to other countries.

The following examples are taken from boxes or annexes in Tourism as an International Traded Service – A Guide for Measuring Arrivals and Associated Expenditures of Non-Residents: